When a Socialist’s Book Swayed the Nation
[imgbelt img=michaelharrington240.jpg]Michael Harrington wrote The Other America 50 years ago, part of what inspired the War on Poverty.
When Harrington’s book appeared, poverty was already unfolding as a national issue. The Civil Rights movement had begun to expose the depths of racism and African-American poverty in the rural South and the nation’s inner cities. Meanwhile, stories handed down from the 1960 presidential campaign reveal that John F. Kennedy, who grew up in the exquisite wealth of upper-crust Boston, was appalled and deeply moved by the poverty he saw in West Virginia’s coalfields.
[imgcontainer left] [img:kennedyandhill320.jpg] [source]PBH NetworkJohn Kennedy, campaigning in Logan County, West Virginia, stepped up on a tractor to address schoolchidren, 1960.
Lyndon Johnson, a seasoned New Dealer from Texas who ascended to the presidency after Kennedy’s death, wasted little time in making poverty a national issue. Invoking Kennedy’s memory, he launched his War on Poverty on January 8, 1964. The Economic Opportunity Act that Johnson sent to Congress reflected his broad-ranging approach to alleviating poverty in rural and urban areas. The legislation addressed poverty on many fronts:
• It proposed a Job Corps and work training and work-study programs to help poor youths complete their educations and develop skills;
• boosted community development with a Community Action Program based on “maximum feasible participation” to give American communities the opportunity to develop their own comprehensive plans to fight local poverty;
• set up Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA), a domestic Peace Corps program to recruit volunteers to counter poverty;
• proposed a loan program as an incentive for those who hired the unemployed.
Congress, at Johnson’s behest, created the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) to coordinate the War on Poverty, leaving a legacy of positive government activity that included Head Start for disadvantaged school children, food stamps, Medicare, and Medicaid.
Sadly, many critics of the War on Poverty state flatly that it did not work. Could it have done better? Certainly. Was it a failure? Absolutely not. Evidence clearly shows that anti-poverty measures of the 1960s played a vital role not only in reducing poverty, but in creating mechanisms to protect the chronically poor from hunger and health problems, while at the same time opening opportunities to economic opportunity and community improvement.
It is true that poverty rates were falling rapidly when the government implemented its anti-poverty measures. This was partly the result of a dynamic economy that was growing to provide more jobs and higher wages for many workers. But the War on Poverty, coupled with civil rights legislation, opened even more economic opportunities and access to political processes for the disenfranchised, while creating mechanisms to cushion the cyclical impacts of poverty.
For rural areas, the longer-run benefits of the War on Poverty are clear. From the early 1960s until now, the gap between nonmetropolitan and metropolitan poverty has closed markedly, from a difference of about 15 percentage points to about 3 percentage points. The gap narrowed despite the massive shifts in the national and global economy, changes that have moved jobs and people across the nation and all over the world.
Poverty can be diminished. We owe Harrington, who died in 1989, a debt of gratitude for reminding us of our ethical obligations, for reminding us that we can always reach greater goals, if we have the political and economic will to do so.
Timothy Collins is assistant director for research, policy, outreach, and sustainability at the Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs at Western Illinois University in Macomb. Opinions expressed here are his and his alone.